an exploration of the Secondlife platform as an immersive environment, a poltical space, and as a generative medium for architectural design.

Friday, November 18, 2005

from levittown to blumfield

levittown is a controversial town from north american history. it is at once a fine example of mass production and and 5% down mortgages being brought together to provide affordable housing to the working class of north america and the worst example of free expression and individuality. i could write for pages about my disdain for levittown, suburban sprawl, and institutionally engendered erosion of democracy in north america but this blog is about second life, a medium where we can leave behind the mundanity and anonymity of our every day existence. second life is my world. my imagination. i can be an astronaut, a millionaire playboy, or a cute little bunny.

to help new players along the way to realize the freedom of expression the second life allows, to get their first taste of fantasy, Linden Lab created a wonderful community for noobies, a first land oppurtunity that comes with a house. a wonderful gesture and an inspiration to us all! welcome to blumfield, also known as linden town.
if this is a boardman inspired project, it missed all the important feautures. instead of homes that evoke bourgeois modern living, these are the working class homes of factory and office drones, nostalgic of simple and boring times. instead of a few winding streets for residents to wander in, it is an relentless and uncaring grid that informs players that they are just as much a number in SL as they are in RL. finally, rather than using high quality prefabs as advertised in the bidding process, what we see is mediocrity and less then mediocrity.

white band flicker unaligned, mismatching scales, and stretched camera collision questionable texture quality

i mean no slight to the builders, who offered way more value than one would be expected to risk for a shot at a 5000 L$ reward (one of them quite impressively was only a month old and when he entered his winning entry). LL got quite a deal. im sure that the inworld market would have given some of these designers much better returns for their work over time from sales that are now less likely as noobies will be getting these houses for free from LL.

unless the nature of this pilot project is to impress new residents with flicker full, camera colliding low ceilings, awkwardly small doorways, and poor texturing (most houses did not have all deficiencies though each had at least one glaring one) LL really missed the boat with setting up conditions for high quality submissions. the train station competition, which had much simpler requirements, had double the pay off. my personal view is that the best way to retain players is by impressing them with amazing content. if LL wants to unload some of that content creation work on the community that is an excellent and welcomed oppurtunity for the player community. but LL must recognize, and very much like their own staff, at the end of the day quality costs money, and many of the represented builders cut their work short because of the risk to reward ratio, while countless others didn't even submit an entry.

“The long straight streets and avenues of a gridiron city do not permit the buildings to cluster like sheep and protect one against the sense of space. They are not sober little walks closed in between houses, but national highways. The moment you set foot on one of them, you understand it must go on.”
Jean-Paul Sartres on Manhattan, 1811

how immersed will a players from another virtual worlds feel as they step out from their homes on to an oppressive grid? a grid does not end. in the abstract conception of our minds it continues forever. a grid is not only easy to build, but easy to scale. layered geometrically on the SL grid, it can be extended infinitely to accomodate the explosive growth that second life is experiencing. if this pilot project succeeds, tens of thousands of new players in the coming year could be beginning their second life in a vast unrelenting grid of poorly fabricated dwellings as LL attempts to technocratically manage the population by throwing them into these noobie ghettos.

lordfly digerdoo made a post today identifying 3 popular reasons why people log into sl: sex, money and socializing.

A mature sim kinda helps those along. Nothing says "howdy neighbor!" like a BDSM torture rack.

Lordfly Digeridoo, SL forums

As we discussed the mature angle Lordfly brought while standing on the front stoop of one of the houses, Crystalshard Foo decided to test if SL Sprawl could really support SL "socializing" .

CrystalShard Foo: Lets run a quick experiment.
(Crystalshard walks across the street to the front door of the opposing house)
CrystalShard Foo: Kyrah, can you read me?
Kyrah Abattoir: yus
CrystalShard Foo: I've rest my case.
Jauani Wu: hehe
Jauani Wu: what is the range?
Jauani Wu: 20m?
CrystalShard Foo: Yes

the positive aspect to this is that LL has realized they need to actively address influx of new players. many players need a place to tie themselves to to immerse themselves into a new game world. my confusion is why LL didn't pursue the very succesful (200 L$/m2 kind of succesful) boardman sim to emulate. infact, why not hire skilled craftsman like ingrid or barnesworth or others who made boardman such a desirable location as consultants or work for hire? why instead emulate a technocratic dystopia like levittown? if this model is indeed intended to be scaled up, wouldn't it be more fruitful to invest the necessary resources to make it as compelling and immersive as possible? finally, wouldn't it be more fruitful for noobies to more easily acclimatize into their second life if they weren't segregated into dehumanizing ghetto? was the old method of mixing noobie plots unsuccesful or was it discarded to downsize the LL side land management in the full sim sales? will this kind of sim, if found to be succesful, be mixed in with the regular grid or will the be extended infinitely as their morphology suggests?

my concern is that unlike communist china or post ww2 north america, players do have a real choice when faced with institutionalized forces that homogenize and compartmentalize human lives. they don't have to remain indentured to this ghetto. they can leave lindentown and build there own dreams elsewhere in the gridsverse. but they can also log off.


  • At 11/19/2005 12:04:00 a.m., Blogger Forseti Svarog said…

    Great post jau... I've been wondering the same thing. Blumfield is at once cute and yet also dehumanizing in a way that Boardman is not.

    The counter to my dismay is to note that we are looking at an empty sim right now. The human touch isn't there yet. Boardman has touches from invested, caring owners. The owners haven't moved into Blumfield yet, and perhaps LL only wanted to provide the most basic canvas to get people started.

    It's true that LL didn't offer much in the way of incentive to build really great content for this sim, but perhaps this was a way to let users understand that no, LL is not going to be a content crutch, rather users are expected to think about their own dreams and inspiration.

    Of course these reflections focus more on the plots/builds themselves. I didn't see any effort put forth towards encouraging community through gather spots and street layout. After all, one of the biggest problems SL faces is that people who don't come in world with friends feel very isolated. Would gather spots be used by locals or simply a waste of m2 that instead could be turned into a 512-for-rent plot? I don't have an answer.

    We shall soon see what is next for Blumfield as new residents move in and begin their personalization. Perhaps these concerns are unfounded. The proof will be in the pudding.

  • At 11/20/2005 06:07:00 p.m., Blogger Cocoanut said…

    I see you have put down my house here. Along with everyone else's in Blumfield. I would like to know what "glaring deficiency" you found in my house. I don't claim to know everything about building, or to be perfect, but my houses generally don't contain "glaring deficiencies."

    Understand that the limitations for these houses were strict: Only one story, 14 x 14, containing at least one room 10 x 10, yet with other rooms. Try that one! Easy it ain't. Try to do it in 3-4 days, during which time, I might point out, the grid was crashed by griefers and 1.7 debuted, and boy, was that ever a joy to build in.

    All those prerequisites had to be met, while making the build to look like "a typical fifties' suburban house" and fit onto a 512 lot. Moreover, each house had to be a specific, prescribed distance from the fronts and the sides of the lot.

    Given all those restrictions, it is a tribute to the imagination of the people whose builds were chosen that we see such a variety of houses there.

    I resent the implication that when they used my build they didn't use the work of a skilled craftsman. And I resent your stating that my building is a poorly fabricated building. My prefab is high quality. It is not "mediocrity."

    The inworld market does pay me for my houses inworld. So far, no one has come back to me complaining of glaring deficiencies. They have come back, though, to declare that I rock, or some version thereof.

    And the reason for not hiring one person to do the whole thing is very simple: They decided instead to make it a contest so that anyone interested could have a chance to participate.

    You would prefer they simply hand the whole deal to Ingrid - or Barney - or me - on a platter. I would very strongly prefer they DIDN'T.

    As for the textures, they took these houses and retextured most of them. I have offered to go in and fix any textures that are problematic.

    As for the doors, room sizes, and whatnot, what do you think anyone is going to be able to get into a 14 x 14 one-story fifties'-style house with more than one room, and at least one room 10 x 10? Giant doors, big rooms, 20 meter ceilings?

    As for Levittown, that was essentially the idea. In fact, I researched Levittown and the like before I built and submitted my own house.

    Any individual was welcome to enter this contest and give me some competition. Anyone who thinks they could have done better could have entered the contest.

    I don't know why they didn't recreate a Boardman-type lay-out; maybe because they already HAVE Boardman. Maybe because one of them had this dream of making this working-class community, as you put it. I, personally signed onto that dream.

    Quite possibly they didn't want to make another Boardman, or something wealthier than "working-class," because they were going to give it away for free, and didn't wish it to have too much perceived value.

    In any case, I will have to go back to Boardman to ensure that, indeed, all the plots there are actually 512.

    This is not a ghetto. No one need remain "indentured" to it. No one even need keep the house that came with it ON it. It is cute and can be lots of fun, and will be fascinating to see how it evolves over time.

    It is a promotion to tempt basic members into going premium, a fun thing - not some dark political statement. I hope it does well, and that they get a lot of new premium accounts from it.


  • At 11/21/2005 08:53:00 a.m., Blogger Prokofy Neva said…

    I agree with some of your aesthetic critic of Blumfield, but I don't agree that the solution is to create a "state order" for Ingrid or Barnes. I think the Lindens should get out of the "surrealty" business and stop competing with resident businesses. Let them make the servers work and attend to game infrastructure and really leave the "your world, your imagination" stuff to players.

    Why should the Lindens hand subsidized state-organized income streams to Ingrid or Barnes merely because they are a) good architects b) willing to be FIC-ized? If they want to do something like Boardman let them buy land, pay tier, and work like the rest of us. Ingrid has already done that in Boardman and Brown -- if she likes sim homesteading like this, let her attract capital, tenants, etc. on the free and open market, rather than helping to put the rest of us out of business by starting yet another government subsidized project.

    The Lindens failed us on providing even the most simple zoning, like sims simply labeled as guideance on the auction "residential" or "commercial," and they refuse to handle even the most blatant, extortionist and obstructive griefing like Lazarus Divine's for-sale anti-Bush signs. They fail us and destroy our property value, then whallop us on the head with another subsidized FIC-type project that diverts the newbie stream away from the open market into the waiting arms of the Commune.

  • At 11/21/2005 11:48:00 a.m., Blogger ingrid ingersoll said…

    I think LL could have done a much better job with this sim. It looks as if Blumfield was done quickly. I suspect this was a very simple project that they didn't want to spend too much time on, but was more of an experiment than anything. The problem though, is that they squashed it's potential by making it so bland. Some curved streets, some public spaces would have helped immensely.

    On the flip side though, if it was really well done, people might not want to leave and would instead, hang on to their 512's. The idea is to get them in, give them a taste of landownership that is probably more positive than some random first land next to a club, and then get them to tier up and move out of Blumfield. In the end it might accomplish just that.

    But damn... even the trees are all the same!

  • At 11/21/2005 01:20:00 p.m., Blogger Cocoanut said…

    Yes, Ingrid! I think that was exactly the idea. (And yes, it was done very quickly.) Mainly, they want premium accounts.

    And if people move in and have a pretty good experience in first-time home-owning, so much the better. They will get the bug, and then be more inclined to move on to bigger places and more tier-paying.

    I say, wait till more Ingrids move in and actually MAKE something of the place.

    And - I say Jauani should be boxed severely about the ears for dissing my build.


  • At 11/23/2005 02:57:00 p.m., Blogger jauani said…

    forseti, i agree with you about a human touch. i wrote my blog hastily, not realizing that there were no zoning rules. people can change their house to whatever they want. it still doesn't reflect well on SL that the houses quality of these freebie houses doesn't the high quality possible with the platform. in that sense, are these plots really have the implied added value of a "special promotion?"

    i don't think it's about LL becoming a content crutch here at all. i don't like using the metaphor of country or government but keep those in mind. as the company that is selling SL to consumers, LL should be putting the best foot forward. to create a more compelling and immersive environment, LL must lead the way with quality content. in the past they have. but lately they are just slipping with the way they run these competitions. it might be player work but it's LL's face.

    LL might be understaffed but they are not underfunded. i am totally perplexed by projects like this and the recently announced competition for educational facilities. my view is LL is essentially trying to exploit the passion and enthusiasm of middle grade builders to build project for them for next to nothing. i sense this is more an effect of lower level community builders for LL just trying to accomplish their tasks within their means, and not a cquestion of the over all vision. to me it's a little disgraceful to try to be a part of this world when the institution it belongs to doesn't create an image of somethign to care about.

    in a competition, the real winner is supposed to the participants. not the judges. what LL is doing with these projects is requesting spec work from the SL communities designers at the risk of their own time, then picking the one they like and throwing a bone. i have several friends who entered this competition having put in a day of work and lost. cocoa herself claims to have put in 3 days. do you think LL staffers, whose work is being unloaded in these communities, would submit to these terms? LL is exploiting their privileged position.

  • At 11/23/2005 03:22:00 p.m., Blogger jauani said…

    this entry is not about your house in particular. it is about LL creating a banal community for new players with mediocre content. your house being one pf the selcetions is an incidental byproduct of the issue.

    you points about the requirements are very informative. as i've mentioned before, this project was very demanding and yet offerd a 5k L$ compensation, whereas projects in the past like the train station, were very easy and the payout was 15k. LL engendered a competition that would have lower quality work because they did not offer anyone with incentive. i'm sure you would agree that if the pay out was 50k, you would have spent more time, you might have hired a friend to texture, etc etc. for 5k those were not viable options.

    i'm glad there are fans of your work in world. it should be added that the houses you showed me in world were much nicer than the one you submitted here. might this be because having an inworld market for them gave you some incentive?

    i would strongly prefer that LL hand over their overflow of work to competent 3d artists with professional contracts. they have done this in the past and the results, such as the welcome area, are a good indication that it works. i believe that these oppurtunities should be publicized and fair, but if bedazzle or the protagonists win all the contracts because they are the best builders for the best price then power to them.

    did your research of levittown turn up that it was managed by instituionalized racism whereby levitt explicitly barred non-whites from living in the community? is this a high point in american urban planning? i guess it is in line with gated communities of today so things haven't really changed much.

    you make an interesting point about not wanting to increase its percieved value. perhaps LL's goal was to give incentive to the players to tear down the house or to fix it and learn the tools. giving them a beautiful might have engendered complacency and boredom.

    it most definitely is a ghetto though. a ghetto of new players, all of them lacking the experience and knowledge of the platform and with no established midbie or oldbie neighbours to approach for help.

  • At 11/23/2005 03:35:00 p.m., Blogger jauani said…

    i don't understand your logic in regards to contracting out work. is it just in regards to the surrealty business, or any LL projects, such as welcome areas and other public spaces?

    i don't think LL would be subsidizing anything. if LL contracts out a building project to an artist, it is not subsidization, it is payment for services rendered.

    your point on zoning is very appropriate to this topic. the word is that one of the goals of the projects is to develop tools that would then be available to everyone to better manage zoned sims. secondly, i've been told that LL wants to lead by example. they are hoping if this succeeds, it will be a signal to players to provide services like this. the irony is that players have already offering services of this kind. they have been for over a year.

  • At 11/23/2005 09:27:00 p.m., Blogger Cocoanut said…

    Mediocre content. Yes, I know till the cows come home that you feel that way. If you wanted some other kind of different content, why didn't you enter the contest?

    Now that you know other people might win these things besides the ones whose builds you admire, perhaps you could get more of those whose builds you admire to enter them?

    Or - did some people you know enter and not get chosen, and you felt they should have? That their builds were less "mediocre?" If so, all I can say is, hey - sometimes I think they pick the wrong Miss America, too, but you really can't do much about that.

    I think you are mistaken when you think that "middle grade builders" are those who don't charge 10k per house, and people who charge lower are therefore lower quality builders. You seem to think that good quality work HAS to be costly.

    While it is true that some builders stated they basically wouldn't be caught dead building for such a low price (of only $5,000 for their house!), there are others of us who are happy to try for it.

    Don't ask me why the pay for the various build jobs is all over the place. I get the idea that they have these preconceived notions about what things are worth. Or they base it on how long you are given to work on it; I'm not sure.

    But speaking for myself, I'm more likely to make my decisions based on the type of project, rather than the pay for it.

    For instance, I'm not interested (right now, anyway) in doing a public space for an education build, even though the pay is much better! Realistic houses that are going in realistic neighborhoods, though - I'm all over that! I have been just HUMONGOUSLY excited over this neighborhood since I first heard of it!

    And - the educational facility, at 25k - you consider that next to nothing? First off, I don't think it is, and secondly, even if it were, the advertising effect and prestige factor is priceless.

    Maybe I'm just too naive or giving, or something, but my last build, part-way through that promotion, they sent us numbers of how many people had upped to premium by choosing which ones of the items. I actually figured out how much more money I had put in Linden coffers with my build. Not to feel cheated by it or anything - but because I was happy about it!

    Prok can call me fic'd and all that, but he's not the slightest different from me. He does even way more things at no great profit to himself (if any) for the good of the world. Getting more premium players is that for me. Premium players are the holy grail!

    Moving on: "Banal community." You know, we are really just never going to see eye-to-eye on this. I looked at it and saw a place where I wanted to live! You see it as "banal." All I can say is, different strokes for different folks.

    "i'm sure you would agree that if the pay out was 50k, you would have spent more time, you might have hired a friend to texture, etc etc. for 5k those were not viable options."

    No, I would not have spent more time; as it was I spent nearly all the time AVAILABLE. I always spend all the time available for a project irl, too. If they had given us three weeks, I probably would have done several houses and chosen one.

    I doubt I would have hired a friend to texture, because, as I said earlier, I prefer to buy textures ready-made from a wide variety of choices. Kinda like preferring to do your own shopping, when decorating a house, buying things and sometimes taking them back, till you get it exactly as you like. Rather than hiring an interior decorator to come up with the textures and hoping you like them.

    The time available wasn't very much time, either, and the crashing of the grid and 1.7 didn't make things easier. The homes were due, it turned out, the very minute 1.7 was due up, but they agreed to give us another day because of that.

    "i'm glad there are fans of your work in world. it should be added that the houses you showed me in world were much nicer than the one you submitted here. might this be because having an inworld market for them gave you some incentive?"

    Of course there are fans of my work in world. You sound a bit surprised that there are. (But I appreciate the compliment.) If the other houses of mine you saw were "much nicer" than the one here, it's because they were much BIGGER, in addition to being able to be less generic, in addition to not having a dozen rules to follow, in addition to not having to be completed in 3 days, in addition to not having to be 14 x 14.

    They are NOT much nicer, though, as concerns solid structure, the best seams I can do, curb appeal, color combos, total concern at all times for the person who will live in it, effort, and so on and so forth.

    Every house I do represents my best effort. They always do! They don't turn out all the same, cause they can't. Some I like less than others (and some sell more than others), but that's just the nature of the beast. They all get my best effort.

    This contest gave me PLENTY of incentive! Money, plus competition, plus service, plus prestige, PLUS an overal project and promotion I adored from the get-go! I wouldn't have participated in the first place if I hadn't really wanted to, or if I weren't excited about the project itself.


  • At 11/23/2005 09:35:00 p.m., Blogger Cocoanut said…

    Missed the part about Levittown. You need to understand that it was *I* who looked up Levittown, plus other examples of tract housing; neither "Levittown" nor "tract" ever escaped the Lindens' lips. All they said was, "typical fifties' suburban neighborhood."

    These sorts of neighborhoods - like Blumfield - are not symbolic of Levittown. These neighborhoods are built every day, even today, all across the country - they are NEIGHBORHOODS. The less wealthy they are, the more likely they are to look more like the SL version in Blumfield.

    Boardman is the same kind of thing, but a step up on the economic ladder. (And very much a fantasy, in its picture-perfectness, of everyone's favorite home town.)

    These neighborhoods - regardless of their age or economic value - are the way people live. I live in a house in a subdivision, built in the seventies. The house, lot, and rooms are a lot larger than the similar houses I grew up in.

    But there really isn't anything dark to be mined in Blumfield, unless you are mining the same dark implications in the real, everyday lives of real, everyday people everywhere.


  • At 11/23/2005 11:02:00 p.m., Blogger jauani said…

    cocoa, in regards to typical 50s suburban neighbourhood, levittown is the prototypical example. it doesn't really matter that it wasn't mentioned. it was clearly implicit. the images alone spell that out.

    your excuse that you had a few days to build is just another feather in my hat. it logically supports my arguement that the terms of this competition engendered banality. i don't even know why you would try to argue this point. you were given a handful of days to design, build, and texture a house that is being given away as an added value promotion for premium accounts. i compare that to your other work and i'm left disappointed.

    is it even an added value? or an empty hype? ... j-wu says don't believe the hype.

  • At 11/24/2005 12:44:00 a.m., Blogger Cocoanut said…

    Levittown is an example of that type of neighborhood, and it epitomized surburbia as a place to live and a as way of life. But it was but one example. Levitt built 17,000 homes, but during the same time period, 11 million homes were built in the suburbs.

    Of these 11 million homes, many if not most were similar - with one bath, 2-3 bedrooms, living room and kitchen, which acted as a dining area. Our SL version got only 1 bedroom, but several people managed to get four rooms, or living areas, in that small space - which I think is phenomenal.

    I grew up in just such a house, in just such a neighborhood - one that had been built in the fifties, with three bedrooms, and the kitchen had a rather nice dining area that opened into the living room.

    The house I built, in fact, started off inspired by the design of the house I lived in. It changed, however, as I went along, largely because the garage was an important design consideration in the home I grew up in, and I didn't have one in this house. (But I might recreate that house some day, just for fun!)

    Everybody had a back yard, and for the first time, more average families could now have a home of their own - a.k.a. the American Dream. Government loans, mortgages, and I believe the G.I. bill contributed to more people than ever able to afford single-family homes of their own.

    That trend extended far and beyond Levittown, which was considered on the low end of even most similar middle-class neighborhoods, I believe.

    So yes, Levittown was the prototypical example. But you say that as if it were a BAD thing. These neighborhoods - and the new way of life they offered to average people - were a huge step ahead for everyone, and people were thrilled to have them.

    Today we have the same thing, built on the same formula. Mass builders, building large, surburban neighborhoods with - when it comes down to it - not really that much more variety than those developments in the fifties offered.

    I live in a rapidly-growing area north of Atlanta, and you can see these neighborhoods springing up every day. The difference is the yards are smaller, and the houses and price tags are MUCH bigger.

    Now if you are going to translate ANY of this into a neighborhood full of 512's to give away with houses on them, it's very likely to look like you see in Blumfield. I'm one of the people who likes to play house online in a neighborhood, so it's just up my alley. (I would have moved into Boardman if I could have.)

    By the way, I noticed a Linden, Brent, I think it was, has a home there, so they aren't totally without anybody older or more knowledgable, and anyway, they are hardly trapped there. (Though the display in the sim next door would imply that.)

    I agree with you - three/four days is not enough for builders to come up with these things; I think they should allow at least a week. After all, people have lives, people's computers go down, their electricity or service providers go down, people crash the build, updates happen, etc.

    It is an "added value," in that the whole thing is free. The best value, though, is its POTENTIAL. I would have felt very differently if I could have started off in something like this. However it develops, for better or worse, it will be interesting to watch. Let's hope, at this point, that it DOES develop.

    You should drop by my shop sometime, Jauani - I have three other 512's on display there. I wonder if you would like them any better than this one, which disappointed you?

    I would love to get your opinion on those, so I can more adequately discern what of your disappointment is based on its size, or what other specific factors may be at play, that I could take into consideration in future builds.


  • At 11/24/2005 10:06:00 a.m., Blogger Bob Van Der Velde said…

    Blumfield certainly looks like a replica 50s suburb as intended. The shame is that the designers missed an opportunity to include gathering places that might lead to a greater feeling of "community". Even 50s suburbs had libraries, schools, and marketplaces.

  • At 11/24/2005 12:05:00 p.m., Blogger Cocoanut said…

    Bob, I asked what about parks and things when I first saw the neighborhood, and was told maybe, if the area was popular during the promotion and they expanded it to accomodate more people.


  • At 12/11/2005 09:42:00 a.m., Blogger Cienna said…

    LL didn't think about the 20m social factor, I promise you. Even a blind chicken will find grain in the barnyard on occasion.

    As for "LL might be understaffed but they are not underfunded." -- I'd be very curious how you conclude this... my research lends a very different picture.

    As for this -- "perhaps LL's goal was to give incentive to the players to tear down the house or to fix it and learn the tools. giving them a beautiful might have engendered complacency and boredom."

    In the end I think you give Linden Labs entirely too much credit for thinking. They have missed the boat and made significant mistakes that demonstrate all to well that they are NOT thinking at all. This Blumfield rollout being among the number.

  • At 11/15/2006 06:15:00 p.m., Blogger hquintel said…

    Does any one know the mean building time to delover a levittown home and how many workers were needed per unit?



  • At 8/01/2008 03:04:00 p.m., Anonymous Anonymous said…

    hquintel, the workers moved in phases, so the framers did one house and then moved to the next and the plumbers did the house that was just framed while the framers did the one next door and then they moved over one and the electricians came in next...

    it was like an assembly line except instead of having a stationary worker with moving assembly you have stationary assembly with moving workers. same efficiencies. levitt houses were 30-40% less than comparable construction because of these build methods, most of the "levittowners" would've been in apartments were it not for levittown and developments like it.


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